Om läromedel - speciellt min seminarieuppsats i metodik vid HLS, 1978-12-17: FÖRETAGSEKONOMISKA LÄROMEDEL
För 100 år sedan skrev John Dewey (1859-1952) följande:
The subject of compound-business-partnership is probably not in many of the arithmetics nowadays, though it was there not a generation ago, for the makers of text-books said that if they left out anything they could not sell their books.
This compound-business-partnership originated as far back the sixteenth century. The joint-stock company had not been invented, and as large commerce with the Indies and Americas grew up, it was necessary to have an accumulation of capital with which to handle it. One man said, "I will put in this amount of money for six months," and another, "So much for two years", and so on. Thus by joining together they got money enough to float their commercial enterprises. Naturally, then, "compound partnership" was taught in the schools.
The joint-stock company was invented; compound partnership disappeared, but the problems relating to it stayed in the arithmetics for two hundred years. They were kept after they had ceased to have practical utility, for the sake of mental discipline - they were "such hard problems, you know." A great deal of what is now in the arithmetics under the head of percentage is of the same nature.
Children of twelve and thirteen years of age go through gain and loss calculations, and various forms of bank discount so complicated that the bankers long ago dispensed with them.
And when it is pointed out that business is not done this way, we hear-again of "mental discipline". And yet there are plenty of real connections between the experience of children and illuminated....."
Källa: Dewey on Education, Selections with an Introduction and Notes by Martin S Dworkin, Teachers college pre (1967) page 79 and more pages
Bl.a. hade jag kassarabatter i åtanke när jag - för tjugo år sedan - skrev min uppsats och tillät mig citera en amerikansk professor som varit död i 50 år.
Men det var inte bara detta. Jag skrev då: .. målsättningen
för verksamheten har inte alltid stått klar för mig. Jag citerar
en Arne Halldén (Skolvärlden 36/1978) som kärnfullt och krasst
skrev "Lärarens jobb är att undervisa". Traditionellt sett är
detta detsamma som att förmedla kunskapsinehåll till eleven (Ola
Halldén, Fackläraren 22/1975). Att detta innhåll måste anpassas
till elevens sätt att tänka, till elevens intresse och
erfarenheter, har Dewey understrukit. I annat fall blir
undervisningen "not education but indoctrination,
propaganda" (sid 133 i Dewey on education).
Läs också Ivan Illich: "Samhälle utan skola" W&W, 1972.
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